Security means safety or protection from harm and danger. without security, individuals within a state will find it difficult to engage in productive activities. Similarly, without security, the state is bond to experience great difficulty in harnessing its human capital and in promoting the general wellbeing of the people. The primary objective of national security is to strengthen the Federal republic of Nigeria, advance her interests and objectives to curtail instability, crime, eliminate corruption, enhance genuine development, progress and growth, improve the welfare, well-being and quality of life of every citizen.
However, it should be observed that many scholars in recent times Have redefined security away from the dominant view. Robert McNamara argued that security is development and without development there can be no security. Any country that seeks to actually achieve adequate military security against the background of acute food shortages, low level of productivity, fragile infrastructural base for technological development, inadequate public utilities and chronic problem of underemployment has a false sense of security.
Fage (1999) observed that in achieving the objective of security, a nation must be economically buoyant. An economically buoyant nation can be confident when exercising national power. As a sovereign entity, Nigeria faces almost no threat from its west African neighbours, largely because her economic and military strength supersedes those of its neighbouring countries.
Furthermore, Nigeria has never been in direct open conflict with a world power capable of invading her, except in her quest to consolidate supremacy and independence in Africa affairs. In addition, the respect, prestige and big brother status accorded Nigeria by her sub-Saharan neighbors makes it morally wrong to attack any country in the region from this point of view, it becomes obvious that the main sources of threat to Nigeria’s national security lay manifest in social economic and political inequality.
A return to democratic rule in 1999 brought a feeling of hope and optimism that social economic and political issues would be tackled. Today the nation is on the verge of claiming the failed states status. Violent conflicts, increased crime rate and level of insecurity are the realities of contemporary Nigeria. In redefining national security in the 21st century, Nigeria must operate a buoyant, diversified and indigenous economic infrastructure that will aid rapid growth and development in all spheres within the nation.